Mads Gyrd-Hansen selected recent publications
Cell Death Differ, 24 (7), pp. 1135-1136. | Read more2017. All roads lead to ubiquitin.
The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) regulates immune signaling, and its function is regulated by the deubiquitinases OTULIN and CYLD, which associate with the catalytic subunit HOIP. However, the mechanism through which CYLD interacts with HOIP is unclear. We here show that CYLD interacts with HOIP via spermatogenesis-associated protein 2 (SPATA2). SPATA2 interacts with CYLD through its non-canonical PUB domain, which binds the catalytic CYLD USP domain in a CYLD B-box-dependent manner. Significantly, SPATA2 binding activates CYLD-mediated hydrolysis of ubiquitin chains. SPATA2 also harbors a conserved PUB-interacting motif that selectively docks into the HOIP PUB domain. In cells, SPATA2 is recruited to the TNF receptor 1 signaling complex and is required for CYLD recruitment. Loss of SPATA2 increases ubiquitination of LUBAC substrates and results in enhanced NOD2 signaling. Our data reveal SPATA2 as a high-affinity binding partner of CYLD and HOIP, and a regulatory component of LUBAC-mediated NF-κB signaling.
Innate immune signaling relies on the deposition of non-degradative polyubiquitin at receptor-signaling complexes, but how these ubiquitin modifications are regulated by deubiquitinases remains incompletely understood. Met1-linked ubiquitin (Met1-Ub) is assembled by the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC), and this is counteracted by the Met1-Ub-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN, which binds to the catalytic LUBAC subunit HOIP. In this study, we report that HOIP also interacts with the deubiquitinase CYLD but that CYLD does not regulate ubiquitination of LUBAC components. Instead, CYLD limits extension of Lys63-Ub and Met1-Ub conjugated to RIPK2 to restrict signaling and cytokine production. Accordingly, Met1-Ub and Lys63-Ub were individually required for productive NOD2 signaling. Our study thus suggests that LUBAC, through its associated deubiquitinases, coordinates the deposition of not only Met1-Ub but also Lys63-Ub to ensure an appropriate response to innate immune receptor activation.
The linear ubiquitin (Ub) chain assembly complex (LUBAC) generates Met1-linked "linear" Ub chains that regulate the activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) transcription factor and other processes. We recently discovered OTULIN as a deubiquitinase that specifically cleaves Met1-linked polyUb. Now, we show that OTULIN binds via a conserved PUB-interacting motif (PIM) to the PUB domain of the LUBAC component HOIP. Crystal structures and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments reveal the molecular basis for the high-affinity interaction and explain why OTULIN binds the HOIP PUB domain specifically. Analysis of LUBAC-induced NFκB signaling suggests that OTULIN needs to be present on LUBAC in order to restrict Met1-polyUb signaling. Moreover, LUBAC-OTULIN complex formation is regulated by OTULIN phosphorylation in the PIM. Phosphorylation of OTULIN prevents HOIP binding, whereas unphosphorylated OTULIN is part of the endogenous LUBAC complex. Our work exemplifies how coordination of ubiquitin assembly and disassembly activities in protein complexes regulates individual Ub linkage types.
X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) is an essential ubiquitin ligase for pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing (NOD)-1 and -2 pattern recognition receptors. Mutations in XIAP cause X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 (XLP2), an immunodeficiency associated with a potentially fatal deregulation of the immune system, whose aetiology is not well understood. Here, we identify the XIAP baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR)2 domain as a hotspot for missense mutations in XLP2. We demonstrate that XLP2-BIR2 mutations severely impair NOD1/2-dependent immune signalling in primary cells from XLP2 patients and in reconstituted XIAP-deficient cell lines. XLP2-BIR2 mutations abolish the XIAP-RIPK2 interaction resulting in impaired ubiquitylation of RIPK2 and recruitment of linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) to the NOD2-complex. We show that the RIPK2 binding site in XIAP overlaps with the BIR2 IBM-binding pocket and find that a bivalent Smac mimetic compound (SMC) potently antagonises XIAP function downstream of NOD2 to limit signalling. These findings suggest that impaired immune signalling in response to NOD1/2 stimulation is a general defect in XLP2 and demonstrate that the XIAP BIR2-RIPK2 interaction may be targeted pharmacologically to modulate inflammatory signalling.
Conjugation of Met1-linked polyubiquitin (Met1-Ub) by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is an important regulatory modification in innate immune signaling. So far, only few Met1-Ub substrates have been described, and the regulatory mechanisms have remained elusive. We recently identified that the ovarian tumor (OTU) family deubiquitinase OTULIN specifically disassembles Met1-Ub. Here, we report that OTULIN is critical for limiting Met1-Ub accumulation after nucleotide-oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) stimulation, and that OTULIN depletion augments signaling downstream of NOD2. Affinity purification of Met1-Ub followed by quantitative proteomics uncovered RIPK2 as the predominant NOD2-regulated substrate. Accordingly, Met1-Ub on RIPK2 was largely inhibited by overexpressing OTULIN and was increased by OTULIN depletion. Intriguingly, OTULIN-depleted cells spontaneously accumulated Met1-Ub on LUBAC components, and NOD2 or TNFR1 stimulation led to extensive Met1-Ub accumulation on receptor complex components. We propose that OTULIN restricts Met1-Ub formation after immune receptor stimulation to prevent unwarranted proinflammatory signaling.
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors constitute a first line of defense against invading bacteria. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) is implicated in the control of bacterial infections, and mutations in XIAP are causally linked to immunodeficiency in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 (XLP-2). Here, we demonstrate that the RING domain of XIAP is essential for NOD2 signaling and that XIAP contributes to exacerbation of inflammation-induced hepatitis in experimental mice. We find that XIAP ubiquitylates RIPK2 and recruits the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) to NOD2. We further show that LUBAC activity is required for efficient NF-κB activation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines after NOD2 stimulation. Remarkably, XLP-2-derived XIAP variants have impaired ubiquitin ligase activity, fail to ubiquitylate RIPK2, and cannot facilitate NOD2 signaling. We conclude that XIAP and LUBAC constitute essential ubiquitin ligases in NOD2-mediated inflammatory signaling and propose that deregulation of NOD2 signaling contributes to XLP-2 pathogenesis.
The realization that alterations in inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are found in many types of human cancer and are associated with chemoresistance, disease progression and poor prognosis, has sparked a worldwide frenzy in the development of small pharmacological inhibitors of IAPs. The development of such inhibitors has radically changed our knowledge of the signalling processes that are regulated by IAPs. Recent studies indicate that IAPs not only regulate caspases and apoptosis, but also modulate inflammatory signalling and immunity, mitogenic kinase signalling, proliferation and mitosis, as well as cell invasion and metastasis.
The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex, LUBAC, is the only known mammalian ubiquitin ligase that makes methionine 1 (Met1)-linked polyubiquitin (also referred to as linear ubiquitin). A decade after LUBAC was discovered as a cellular activity of unknown function, there are now many lines of evidence connecting Met1-linked polyubiquitin to NF-κB signaling, cell death, inflammation, immunity, and cancer. We now know that Met1-linked polyubiquitin has potent signaling functions and that its deregulation is connected to disease. Indeed, mutations and deficiencies in several factors involved in conjugation and deconjugation of Met1-linked polyubiquitin have been implicated in immune-related disorders. Here, we discuss current knowledge and recent insights into the role and regulation of Met1-linked polyubiquitin, with an emphasis on the mechanisms controlling the function of LUBAC.
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