The Prognostic Role of CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Childhood Adrenocortical Carcinomas Compared to Ki-67, PD-1, PD-L1, and the Weiss Score
Parise IZS., Parise GA., Noronha L., Surakhy M., Woiski TD., Silva DB., Costa TE-JB., Del-Valle MHCP., Komechen H., Rosati R., Ribeiro MG., Nascimento ML., Souza JAD., Andrade DP., Paraizo MM., Galvão MMR., Barbosa JRS., Barbosa ML., Custódio GC., Figueiredo MMO., Fabro ALMR., Bond G., Volante M., Lalli E., Figueiredo BC.
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease among children. Our goal was to identify prognostic biomarkers in 48 primary ACCs from children (2.83 ± 2.3 y; mean age ± SD) by evaluating the tumor stage and outcome for an age of diagnosis before or after 3 years, and association with ACC cluster of differentiation 8 positive (CD8+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+-CTL) and Ki-67 immunohistochemical expression (IHC). Programmed death 1(PD-1)/Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) in ACC was analyzed in a second, partially overlapping cohort (N = 19) with a similar mean age. All patients and control children were carriers of the germline TP53 R337H mutation. Survival without recurrence for less than 3 years and death unrelated to disease were excluded. Higher counts of CD8+-CTL were associated with patients diagnosed with ACC at a younger age and stage I, whereas a higher percentage of the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) and Weiss scores did not differentiate disease free survival (DFS) in children younger than 3 years old. No PD-1 staining was observed, whereas weakly PD-L1-positive immune cells were found in 4/19 (21%) of the ACC samples studied. A high CD8+-CTL count in ACC of surviving children is compelling evidence of an immune response against the disease. A better understanding of the options for enhancement of targets for CD8+ T cell recognition may provide insights for future pre-clinical studies.