Targets in MPNs and potential therapeutics
Levy G., Mambet C., Pecquet C., Bailly S., Havelange V., Diaconu CC., Constantinescu SN.
Philadelphia-negative classical Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs), including Polycythemia Vera (PV), Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) and Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF), are clonal hemopathies that emerge in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment. MPN driver mutations are restricted to specific exons (14 and 12) of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), thrombopoietin receptor (MPL/TPOR) and calreticulin (CALR) genes, are involved directly in clonal myeloproliferation and generate the MPN phenotype. As a result, an increased number of fully functional erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes is observed in the peripheral blood. Nevertheless, the complexity and heterogeneity of MPN clinical phenotypes cannot be solely explained by the type of driver mutation. Other factors, such as additional somatic mutations affecting epigenetic regulators or spliceosomes components, mutant allele burdens and modifiers of signaling by driver mutants, clonal architecture and the order of mutation acquisition, signaling events that occur downstream of a driver mutation, the presence of specific germ-line variants, the interaction of the neoplastic clone with bone marrow microenvironment and chronic inflammation, all can modulate the disease phenotype, influence the MPN clinical course and therefore, might be useful therapeutic targets.