The regulation of interleukin-8 by hypoxia in human macrophages--a potential role in the pathogenesis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Hirani N., Antonicelli F., Strieter RM., Wiesener MS., Ratcliffe PJ., Haslett C., Donnelly SC.
BackgroundThe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents a form of severe acute inflammatory lung disease. We have previously demonstrated significantly raised interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in the lungs of at-risk patients that progress to ARDS, and identified the alveolar macrophage as an important source of this chemokine. We wished to extend this study in a well-defined group of patients with major trauma, and to investigate potential mechanisms for rapid intrapulmonary IL-8 generation.Materials and methodsPatients with major trauma underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and IL-8 levels were measured in BAL fluid by ELISA. Human macrophages were derived from peripheral blood monocytes from healthy volunteers. Rabbit alveolar macrophages were obtained from ex-vivo lavage of healthy rabbit lungs. Macrophages were culture under normoxic or hypoxic (PO2 26 mmHg) conditions. IL-8 and other proinflammatory mediator expression was measured by ELISA, northern blotting or multi-probe RNase protection assay.ResultsIn patients with major trauma, IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients that progressed to ARDS compared to those that did not (n = 56, P = 0.0001). High IL-8 levels negatively correlated with PaO2/FiO2 (r = -0.56, P < 0.001). In human monocyte derived macrophages hypoxia rapidly upregulated IL-8 protein (within 2 hours) and mRNA expression (within 30 mins). Acute hypoxia also increased rabbit alveolar macrophage IL-8 expression. Hypoxia increased DNA binding activity of AP-1 and C/EBP but not NF-kappaB. Hypoxia induced HIF-1 expression, but cobaltous ions and desferrioxamine did not mimic hypoxic IL-8 induction. Hypoxia downregulated a range of other proinflammatory mediators, including MCP-1 and TNF-alpha. Both the pattern of cytokine expression and transcription factor activation by hypoxia was different to that seen with endotoxin.ConclusionsRapidly raised intrapulmonary IL-8 levels are associated with ARDS progression in patients with major trauma. Acute hypoxia, a clinically relevant stimulus, rapidly and selectively upregulates IL-8 in macrophages associated with a novel pattern of transcription factor activation. Acute hypoxia may represent one of potentially several proinflammatory stimuli responsible for rapid intrapulmonary IL-8 generation in patients at-risk of ARDS.