ABSTRACTCells adapt to environmental changes, including fluctuations in oxygen levels, through the induction of specific gene expression programs. To identify genes regulated by hypoxia at the transcriptional level, we pulse-labeled HUVEC cells with 4-thiouridine and sequenced nascent transcripts. Then, we searched genome-wide binding profiles from the ENCODE project for factors that correlated with changes in transcription and identified binding of several components of the Sin3A co-repressor complex, including SIN3A, SAP30 and HDAC1/2, proximal to genes repressed by hypoxia.SIN3Ainterference revealed that it participates in the downregulation of 75% of the hypoxia-repressed genes in endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, it also blunted the induction of 47% of the upregulated genes, suggesting a role for this corepressor in gene induction. In agreement, ChIP-seq experiments showed that SIN3A preferentially localizes to the promoter region of actively transcribed genes and that SIN3A signal was enriched in hypoxia-repressed genes, prior exposure to the stimulus. Importantly, SINA3 occupancy was not altered by hypoxia in spite of changes in H3K27ac signal. In summary, our results reveal a prominent role for SIN3A in the transcriptional response to hypoxia and suggest a model where modulation of the associated histone deacetylase activity, rather than its recruitment, determines the transcriptional output.