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The receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPKs) are key regulators of inflammatory signalling and cell death pathways triggered by innate immune receptors, and RIPKs have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for treatment of immune-related disorders. RIPK2 mediates signalling responses initiated by the bacterial-sensing pattern recognition receptors nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins 1 and 2 (NOD1/2), which play a key role in regulation of intestinal immunity and inflammation. Modification of RIPK2 by non-degradative ubiquitin chains generated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase XIAP and other ligases govern NOD1/2 signalling. Recent advances suggest that the interaction between RIPK2 and XIAP is a druggable protein-protein interaction to modulate NOD1/2-dependent immune responses. Here, we discuss the mechanistic function of RIPK2 in immune signalling, its clinical relevance, and the on-going efforts to target RIPK2 in inflammatory bowel disease and beyond.

Original publication




Journal article


Seminars in cell & developmental biology

Publication Date



Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.