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Whole genome base-resolution methylome sequencing allows for the most comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation, however, the considerable sequencing cost often limits its applications. While reduced representation sequencing can be an affordable alternative, over 80% of CpGs in the genome are not covered. Building on our recently developed TET-assisted pyridine borane sequencing (TAPS) method, we here described endonuclease enrichment TAPS (eeTAPS), which utilizes dihydrouracil (DHU)-cleaving endonuclease digestion of TAPS-converted DNA to enrich methylated CpG sites (mCpGs). eeTAPS can accurately detect 87% of mCpGs in the mouse genome with a sequencing depth equivalent to 4× whole genome sequencing. In comparison, reduced representation TAPS (rrTAPS) detected less than 4% of mCpGs with 2.5× sequencing depth. Our results demonstrate eeTAPS to be a new strategy for cost-effective genome-wide methylation analysis at single-CpG resolution that can fill the gap between whole-genome and reduced representation sequencing.

Original publication




Journal article


Nucleic acids research

Publication Date





Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FZ, UK.


Cells, Cultured, Animals, Mice, Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer), Sequence Analysis, DNA, Genomics, DNA Methylation, CpG Islands, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Uracil-DNA Glycosidase, Embryonic Stem Cells