Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Therapeutic neoantigen cancer vaccines have limited clinical efficacy to date. Here, we identify a heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy using a self-assembling peptide nanoparticle TLR-7/8 agonist (SNP) vaccine prime and a chimp adenovirus (ChAdOx1) vaccine boost that elicits potent CD8 T cells and tumor regression. ChAdOx1 administered intravenously (i.v.) had 4-fold higher antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses than mice boosted by the intramuscular (i.m.) route. In the therapeutic MC38 tumor model, i.v. heterologous prime-boost vaccination enhances regression compared with ChAdOx1 alone. Remarkably, i.v. boosting with a ChAdOx1 vector encoding an irrelevant antigen also mediates tumor regression, which is dependent on type I IFN signaling. Single-cell RNA sequencing of the tumor myeloid compartment shows that i.v. ChAdOx1 reduces the frequency of immunosuppressive Chil3 monocytes and activates cross-presenting type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1s). The dual effect of i.v. ChAdOx1 vaccination enhancing CD8 T cells and modulating the TME represents a translatable paradigm for enhancing anti-tumor immunity in humans.

Original publication




Journal article


Cell reports

Publication Date





Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.