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BackgroundStandard of care treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with intravesical Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is associated with side effects, disease recurrence/progression and supply shortages. We recently showed in a phase I trial (NCT03421236) that intravesical instillation in patients with NMIBC with the maximal tolerated dose of Ty21a/Vivotif, the oral vaccine against typhoid fever, might have a better safety profile. In the present report, we assessed the immunogenicity of intravesical Ty21a in patients of the clinical trial that had received the maximal tolerated dose and compared it with data obtained in patients that had received standard BCG.MethodsUrinary cytokines and immune cells of patients with NMIBC treated with intravesical instillations of Ty21a (n=13, groups A and F inNCT03421236) or with standard BCG in a concomitant observational study (n=12, UROV1) were determined by Luminex and flow cytometry, respectively. Serum anti-lipopolysaccharide Typhi antibodies and circulating Ty21a-specific T-cell responses were also determined in the Ty21a patients. Multiple comparisons of different paired variables were performed with a mixed-effect analysis, followed by Sidak post-test. Single comparisons were performed with a paired or an unpaired Student’s t-test.ResultsAs compared with BCG, Ty21a induced lower levels of inflammatory urinary cytokines, which correlated to the milder adverse events (AEs) observed in Ty21a patients. However, both Ty21a and BCG induced a Th1 tumor environment. Peripheral Ty21a-specific T-cell responses and/or antibodies were observed in most Ty21a patients, pointing the bladder as an efficient local immune inductive site. Besides, Ty21a-mediated stimulation of unconventional Vδ2 T cells was also observed, which turned out more efficient than BCG. Finally, few Ty21a instillations were sufficient for increasing urinary infiltration of dendritic cells and T cells, which were previously associated with therapeutic efficacy in the orthotopic mouse model of NMIBC.ConclusionsTy21a immunotherapy of patient with NMIBC is promising with fewer inflammatory cytokines and mild AE, but induction of immune responses with possible antitumor potentials. Future phase II clinical trials are necessary to explore possible efficacy of intravesical Ty21a.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer



Publication Date





e008020 - e008020