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The massive amount of human biological, imaging, and clinical data produced by multiple and diverse sources necessitates integrative modeling approaches able to summarize all this information into answers to specific clinical questions. In this paper, we present a hypermodeling scheme able to combine models of diverse cancer aspects regardless of their underlying method or scale. Describing tissue-scale cancer cell proliferation, biomechanical tumor growth, nutrient transport, genomic-scale aberrant cancer cell metabolism, and cell-signaling pathways that regulate the cellular response to therapy, the hypermodel integrates mutation, miRNA expression, imaging, and clinical data. The constituting hypomodels, as well as their orchestration and links, are described. Two specific cancer types, Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma) and non-small cell lung cancer, are addressed as proof-of-concept study cases. Personalized simulations of the actual anatomy of a patient have been conducted. The hypermodel has also been applied to predict tumor control after radiotherapy and the relationship between tumor proliferative activity and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our innovative hypermodel holds promise as a digital twin-based clinical decision support system and as the core of future in silico trial platforms, although additional retrospective adaptation and validation are necessary.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of personalized medicine

Publication Date





In Silico Oncology and In Silico Medicine Group, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 157 80 Zografos, Greece.


CHIC Project Consortium