Brn-2 Represses Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor Expression and Marks a Distinct Subpopulation of Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor–Negative Melanoma Cells
Goodall J., Carreira S., Denat L., Kobi D., Davidson I., Nuciforo P., Sturm RA., Larue L., Goding CR.
Abstract The origin of tumor heterogeneity is poorly understood, yet it represents a major barrier to effective therapy. In melanoma and in melanocyte development, the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) controls survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration/metastasis. The Brn-2 (N-Oct-3, POU3F2) transcription factor also regulates melanoma proliferation and is up-regulated by BRAF and β-catenin, two key melanoma-associated signaling molecules. Here, we show that Brn-2 also regulates invasiveness and directly represses Mitf expression. Remarkably, in melanoma biopsies, Mitf and Brn-2 each mark a distinct subpopulation of melanoma cells, providing a striking illustration of melanoma tumor heterogeneity with implications for melanoma therapy. [Cancer Res 2008;68(19):7788–94]