Hematoxylin binds to mutant calreticulin and disrupts its abnormal interaction with thrombopoietin receptor.
Jia R., Balligand T., Atamanyuk V., Nivarthi H., Xu E., Kutzner L., Weinzierl J., Nedelec A., Kubicek S., Lesyk R., Zagrijtschuk O., Constantinescu SN., Kralovics R.
Somatic mutations of calreticulin (CALR) have been identified as a main disease driver of myeloproliferative neoplasms, suggesting that development of drugs targeting mutant CALR is of great significance. Site-directed mutagenesis in the N-glycan binding domain (GBD) abolishes the ability of mutant CALR to oncogenically activate the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL). We therefore hypothesized that a small molecule targeting the GBD might inhibit the oncogenicity of the mutant CALR. Using an in silico molecular docking study, we identified candidate binders to the GBD of CALR. Further experimental validation of the hits identified a group of catechols inducing a selective growth inhibitory effect on cells that depend on oncogenic CALR for survival and proliferation. Apoptosis-inducing effects by the compound were significantly higher in the CALR-mutated cells than in CALR wild-type cells. Additionally, knockout or C-terminal truncation of CALR eliminated drug hypersensitivity in CALR-mutated cells. We experimentally confirmed the direct binding of the selected compound to CALR, disruption of the mutant CALR-MPL interaction, inhibition of the JAK2-STAT5 pathway, and reduction at the intracellular level of mutant CALR upon drug treatment. Our data indicate that small molecules targeting the GBD of CALR can selectively kill CALR-mutated cells by disrupting the CALR-MPL interaction and inhibiting oncogenic signaling.